Percentage means a portion out of a hundred. The term percentage is derived from a Latin word that means ‘by the hundred’. It refers to the relation between a part and a whole where the value of the whole is taken as 100. In simple terms, it represents a fraction or ratio with a denominator of 100. Percentages have no units. and denoted by the % symbol.
In academics, the marks obtained in any subject are mostly calculated in terms of percentage. If a student gets 65 marks out of 100, we can say he has got 65 percent marks. It is equivalent to the value of fraction 65/100 or decimal 0.65. So in the above example, to calculate percentage of the marks obtained by the student is 65%.
The percentage is another form of expressing fractions.
For example, ¼ can be expressed as 25%, ½ as 50%, and ¾ as 75%.
Methods to Calculate Percentage
The calculation of percentage is one of the basic concepts in arithmetic. Often it is required to find the percentage of a given number with respect to a whole number that is not necessarily zero. In that case, the process of finding the percentage involves the methods described as follows:
- Represent a fraction with the given value as the numerator and the whole number as the denominator.
- Multiply this fraction with 100.
- The result gives the percentage value of the given number with respect to the whole number.
The formula is: Percentage = (Given value/Total value) X 100
For example, a class has 28 boys out of 50 students so the percentage of boys in the class is calculated as 28/50 X 100 = 56.
So the percentage of boys in the class is 56%.
Percentage Increase or Decrease
Percentage increase or decrease refers to the change in value as a percentage of original or initial value over time. The formulas to calculate percentage increase or decrease are as follows:
Percentage increase = (Increased value – Original value) X 100
Percentage decrease = (Original value – Decreased value) X 100
Points About the Percentage
- When two or more values add up to 100, then the percentage of the individual values with respect to the total value is that number itself.
- To find the percentage of a given value to a whole value not equal to a hundred, divide the given value by the whole and then multiply it by 100.
- An increase or decrease in any quantity can be expressed conveniently as a percentage.
- Fractions and decimals can be converted into percentages and vice-versa.
- Percentages are reversible. For example, 20% of 60 and 60% of 20 both give the same value.
This is necessary to build a strong foundation in mathematics to make the learning effective. Learning mathematics is based on building conceptual clarity on various mathematics topics. The learning process must emphasize practice-based learning that helps to develop problem-solving and analytical skills in students. The teachers guide students to learn math using some simple techniques that can be applied to handle mathematical problems easily. Mathematics learning is not about memorizing formulas but students need to understand the conceptual things in mathematics. In addition, the regular practice also helps students to sharpen their skills in handling different types of mathematical problems. The teachers align their teaching pedagogy according to the requirements of different standards of students and create a learning environment for better involvement and interest. Teachers guide students to overcome their weak points and help them to improve. The application of simple and effective learning tools makes the process of learning more interactive and useful. In the present scenario, with the popularity of online mode, various learning platforms have come up with advanced techniques and digital tools for learning.